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Making Housing Affordable: A Supply-Side Reform Agenda for Urban India

IDFC Institute’s India Infrastructure Report was released in June 2018 by Hardeep Singh Puri, Union Minister of State for Housing and Urban Affairs (Independent Charge), Government of India. The report is an attempt to reframe the contours of the housing problem in urban India and pivot policy thinking from building affordable housing towards making housing affordable.Please click here to access the full report. Using data, this interactive illustrates the key supply-side constraints that plague the Indian housing market.

Visualisation by How India Lives

Urban Growth

In the four decades between 1975 and 2014, Indian cities have expanded rapidly as millions have moved from rural areas to urban clusters in search of economic opportunities. Cities efficiently match firms requiring labour to households that need jobs. However, the unavailability of affordable housing in urban areas restricts access to jobs.

Year
City
Source : UXO India, IDFC Institute Analysis
Note:
1. Grey border indicates municipal boundary.
2. The coloured portion depicts per pixel built-up area as captured by satellite data released by Atlas of Urban Expansion. For more information on the methodology visit this site.

Land-use Regulations

The housing shortage is in part a consequence of an effort by cities to restrict population density in urban areas through land-use regulations. Indian cities have some of the lowest Floor Space Index (FSI) ceilings in the world. This index determines the amount of built-up space allowed on a plot of land; the higher the FSI, the more a builder can construct.

Source: World Bank (2013), Indian Town Planning/Development Acts (For More Information: Please refer to IDFC Institue - Making Housing Affordable Report)
Note : Indian cities marked in darker colors

Some Indian cities also have restrictions on how tall a building can be. For example, a residential building in most areas of Delhi cannot be taller than 15 metres, effectively less than four floors. These regulations have multiple consequences. Less space for construction or restrictions on height translate into limited housing supply, less inhabitable space available per person and high prices for available housing. While this is not just an Indian phenomenon, Indian cities have some of the most restrictive land-use rules in the world.

Source: Various Indian Town Planning and Development Acts (For details, please refer to the More Information tab)

Clearances

In addition to restrictions on land-use, the actual process to acquire land and build on it is tedious. Builders need to get approvals from multiple departments at varying levels of authority before they can construct residential housing. Rules can also change during the construction process, sometimes causing heavy losses on investments. In the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Indicators, 2018, India ranks 181 out of 190 countries for the number of procedures required to obtain construction permits. As a result of these procedures, it takes two to three years for a builder to start construction after entering into an agreement for land purchase.

Source: CREDAI - Jones Lang LaSalle Real Estate Transparency Survey (2011)
Note: Pre-construction approvals from the state level bodies and central bodies can be obtained simultaneously.

Cost of Permits

The process of obtaining various approvals and permits is inefficient, costly and captured by rent-seeking officials and middlemen. The official and unofficial payments to get these approvals constitute around 20-30% of the overall project cost. This cost is eventually passed on to buyers. There is often a separate liaison department in major real estate firms, focused mainly on obtaining official approvals.

Source: World Bank Ease of Doing Business (2018)

Transaction Costs

Once a house has been constructed, inordinately high registration fees and stamp duties add to the cost of property transactions. These fees discourage buyers from declaring the true value of the property while reporting a transaction. Indian states levy some of the highest stamp duties and registration fees.

Stamp duty and registration fees as % of unit price
Source : State government documents (For details, please refer to the More Information tab)
Note : If any state has multiple rates, the total transaction costs applying to men in urban areas has been taken for consistency

Affordability

As the population pressure on cities increases, and a host of restrictive policies prevent supply from keeping pace with demand, housing has become less affordable. One measure of affordability is the price-to-income ratio, which is the ratio of median apartment prices to median household disposable income in a city. This ratio is expressed as the years of income it would take a median household to purchase a median-priced house in that city. Indian cities have higher price-to-income ratios relative to cities across the world.

Price-to-income ratio (2017)
Source : Numbeo

Rental Housing

In India, home-ownership continues to be the focus of government housing policies. Such thinking does not take into account the critical role of rental housing in facilitating labour mobility. Besides the need to rely on affordable rental housing when migrating to cities, home-ownership is less suitable for low-income households for other reasons as well. Owning an illiquid, undiversifiable asset such as a house constrains low-income families with volatile incomes.

Source: Census of India, 2011

However, a combination of policy neglect and market distortions created by Rent Control Acts (RCAs) have pushed the Indian rental market into decline and informality. Pro-tenancy laws, such as RCAs, have frozen rents and made eviction difficult. Capped rents mean that landlords have no incentive to maintain their properties and allow them to deteriorate. Since evictions can only be made under specific conditions outlined in the Act, house-owners decide that the return they would receive from renting out property is not sufficient to outweigh the risk of potentially long-drawn and costly court battles over tenancy. Due to the high risks and low returns in rental markets in India, landlords would rather leave their properties vacant than rent them out. It is therefore not surprising that the share of rental housing in Indian cities has seen a considerable fall from 54% in 1961 to 28% in 2011.

Source: Census of India, 2001 & 2011
Rental yield in Indian cities (2017)
Source : Numbeo
  • Land use regulations: Highest and lowest permissible FSI across Indian cities

    City

    Maximum Free FSI

    Minimum Free FSI

    Purchasable Premium FSI

    Mumbai

    1.33 (Island City)

    0.5 (Main City) and 1.0 for most suburbs

    0.5 (Island City); 0.5 (Suburbs and Extended
    Suburbs) – up to a maximum of 2.5 total

    New Delhi

    3.5

    1.2

    -

    Bengaluru

    3.25

    1.75

    -

    Ahmedabad

    5.4

    1.2

    -

    Chennai

    1.5 (2.5 for multi-storeyed residential buildings)

    1.5

    20/30/40% of Base FSI - Max 1.00

    Kolkata

    3.0

    1.25

    -

    Surat

    4.0 (ORR residential Zone)

    0.6

    Maximum 3.4 Chargeable FSI (Outer Ring
    Road Residential Zone)

    Pune

    2.0 in congested area; 1.1 in
    non-congested

    1.5 in congested area; 1.1 in non-congested area

    0.5 in non-congested area,
    0.25 in congested area

    Jaipur

    2.0

    1.2

    -

    Lucknow

    2.5

    1.5

    -

    Kanpur

    2.5

    1.5

    -

    Nagpur

    1.5 in congested area, 1.25 in non-congested area

    0.5

    0.30 for non-congested areas in NMC area; 0.7 in non-congested area for which the Nagpur Improvement Trust is a special planning authority

    Indore

    2.0

    0.75

    -

    Thane

    1.0

    1.0

    Premium FSI that can be purchased
    through TDR varies depending on location.

    Bhopal

    2.0

    0.75

    -

    Patna

    3.5 in new area, 2.5 in old area

    1.5

    -

    Vadodara

    1.6

    0.75

    Based on road width, from 1.8 upto 2.5

    Ludhiana

    2.0

    1.25

    -

    Jabalpur

    2.0

    0.75

    -

    Coimbatore

    1.5

    1.5

    From 0.5 for group developments to 1.0 for
    multi-storeyed buildings

    Guwahati

    1.75

    1.0

    -

    Bhubaneswar

    2.75

    1.0

    -

    Kochi

    2.0

    2.0

    -

    Udaipur

    1.2

    1.2

    -

    Source: See References (Chapter 2)

    Notes:

    1. The FSI values in this table are based on the latest available sources (as of January 2018) and are subject to change based on government policies and notifications.

    2. Indore and Bhopal FSI values are for group housing.

  • Land use regulations: Maximum height restrictions in Indian cities

    Ahmedabad

    Maximum Height Restriction (m):

    Road Width (m) Max permissible height (m)

    Up to 7.5m Twice the width of abutting road or open space

    Above 7.5m upto 12m 15m

    12m and above 25m

    Notes: For buildings abutting khadki, chowk, fadia, alley or cul de sac, the maximum permissible height is regulated as per width of road.

    Source: ‘Comprehensive Development Plan 2021, Second Revised)’, PART III, General Development Control Regulations, Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (2015), link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Bengaluru

    Maximum Height Restriction: Height of the building shall be regulated according to the width of public street or road only.

    Notes: The minimum width of road shall not be less than 9.0 m and the road widths shall not be less than the plot widths facing the respective road. If the road width is less than 9.0 m, then the maximum height is restricted to 11.5 m or Stilt +GF+2 floors (whichever is less) irrespective of the FAR permissible.

    Source: ‘Revised Master Plan 2015’, Bangalore 2007, Volume 3, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Bhopal

    Maximum Height Restriction: The maximum height of building shall not exceed one and half times the width of road abutting plus the front of open spaces.

    Notes: The height shall be subject to FAR, open spaces and width of street.

    Source: ‘The Madhya Pradesh Bhumi Vikas Rules 1984’, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Bhubaneshwar

    Maximum Height Restriction: The height of building shall be governed by limitations of FAR, setbacks and width of road facing the plot.

    Notes: The maximum height of a building shall in no case exceed 1.5 times the width of the road on which the plot abuts + the front setback. However, higher height on account of premium FAR may be permitted with the approval of government. Notwithstanding the above, the height restrictions with respect to approach funnels and transitional area of airport shall be adhered to.

    Source: ‘The Orissa Gazette’, Bhubaneshwar Development Authority, (Planning and Building Standards) Regulations (2008),
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Chennai

    Maximum Height Restriction: 15.25m

    Notes: Excluding areas for buildings of special character, all areas allow a maximum height of buildings of 15.25m. Water tanks, chimneys, architectural features such as flag masts, gopurams, minarets, steeples and other ornamental structures which are not intended for human habitation may be permitted subject to a ceiling of 30.5m from ground level with special sanction of the Authority. Within Chennai Metropolitan Area and Continuous Building Areas, the building height can further be restricted to a maximum of 9m.

    Source: ‘Second Master Plan for Chennai Metropolitan Area, 2026’, Volume II Development Regulations, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Coimbatore

    Maximum Height Restriction: The maximum height of building shall not exceed 1.5 times the abutting road width + minimum front open space 1.3m + 1m for every 0.3m space left for front open (which excludes 1.3m)

    Source: ‘Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation - Citizen Charter’, link
    (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Delhi

    Maximum Height Restriction: 15m

    Notes: The residential plot size has to be a minimum of 32 sq m (excluding special EWS schemes sponsored by the government). For residential group housing, the maximum height has no restriction but is subject to clearance from AAI/ Fire Department and other statutory bodies.

    Source: ‘Master Plan for Delhi - 2021 (2007, reprinted 2010)’, Delhi Development Authority, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Gurugram

    Maximum Height Restriction: 15m

    Notes: Regardless of plot size, the maximum permissible height of residential buildings is 12.5m or 15m including stilt parking both in core areas and other areas. For group housing, no height restriction is given. Neither FAR, nor plot size or road width impact the height of residential buildings.

    Source: ‘Haryana Building Code (2016)’, Government of Haryana,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Guwahati

    Maximum Height Restriction: 11m

    Notes: For residential plots. Height restricted to 26m for apartment buildings. The maximum height of building shall not exceed 1.5 times the width of road abutting plus the front open spaces.

    Source: “Master ‘Master Plan for Guwahati Metropolitan Area – 2025 (Land Use Zoning and Development Control Regulation)’, Guwahati Metropolitan Authority, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Hyderabad

    Maximum Height Restriction: 18m

    Notes: Permissible height of residential buildings is dependent on plot size (in sq m). For any plot size above 2500 sq m, building height is restricted to 15m, or up to 18m if the plot abuts minimum 12m wide roads only.

    Source: ‘The Andhra Pradesh Building Rules – 2012’, Government of Andhra Pradesh - Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Indore

    Maximum Height Restriction: The maximum height of building shall not exceed one and half times the width of road abutting plus the front of open spaces.

    Notes: The height shall be subject to FAR, open spaces and width of street.

    Source: ‘The Madhya Pradesh Bhumi Vikas Rules 1984’,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Jabalpur

    Maximum Height Restriction: The maximum height of building shall not exceed one and half times the width of road abutting plus the front of open spaces.

    Notes: The height shall be subject to FAR, open spaces and width of street.

    Source: The Madhya Pradesh Bhumi Vikas Rules, 1984,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Jaipur

    Maximum Height Restriction:

    Notes: The maximum building height is dependent on the plot size and restricted to maximum 14m.

    Source: ‘Jaipur Building Byelaws 2010’, Rajasthan Gazette, Jaipur Development Authority,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Kanpur

    Maximum Height Restriction: 12.5m

    Source: ‘Kanpur Building, Construction and Development Bye Law 2008 (amended 2016)’,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Kochi

    Maximum Height Restriction: The building height shall not exceed twice the width of the street abutting the plot + twice the width of the yard from the building to the abutting street.

    Notes: This height may further be increased at 3m for every 50 cms by which the building or the corresponding portion or floor of the building is set back from the building line. If a building plot abuts on two or more streets of different widths, the building plot shall be deemed to abut the street that has greater width. Buildings in the vicinity of airports are subject to different limitations.

    Source: ‘Kerala Municipality Building Rules (1999)’, Government of Kerala,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Kolkata

    Maximum Height Restriction:

    Notes: Height dependent on width of means of access, with no restriction above 15m of means of access (p. 46)

    Source: ‘The Kolkata Gazette’, The Kolkata Municipal Corporation Building Rules (2009),
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Lucknow

    Maximum Height Restriction (m): No restriction to building height

    Source: ‘Building By-laws’, Housing and Urban Planning Department Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Ludhiana

    Maximum Height Restriction: 15.24m

    Notes: The maximum permissible height shall be excluding parapet, water tank and Mumti only.

    Source: ‘Punjab Government Gazette’, Model Municipal Building By-laws 2015,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Mumbai

    Maximum Height Restriction: 21.35m

    Notes:

    Preserving the eastern and southern view of the Back bay Area, Marine Drive:—Notwithstanding anything contained in these Regulations, to preserve the eastern and southern view of the Back bay and the Marine Drive area from Kamla Nehru Park on Malabar Hill, a funnel of vision has been marked on the sheet pertaining to Part II of the ‘D’ Ward Development Plan. No building shall in this funnel of vision be raised or erected to the height of more than 21.35 m. or such lesser height as the Commissioner may prescribe which would include the include the terrace, staircase or lift room, elevated water storage tank or any other building feature; Provided that the Commissioner may, with the prior approval of the Government, permit a building more than 21.35 m. high, after due consideration of the contours of the area, surrounding developments and plot location, the objective being not to obstruct the view within the funnel of vision.

    Source: ‘Clause 31 (4)(c)- Development Control Regulations for Greater Bombay 1991’,
    link (Accessed on 20 February 2018)

    Nagpur

    Maximum Height Restriction:

    Road Width Max. permissible height (m)

    Upto 6m 1.5 times the width of road + front marginal open space within the premises

    6 - 10m 10m + front marginal distance within the premises

    Other roads above 10m Sum of width of the road + front marginal distance

    Notes: The height of the building is related to provisions of FSI, while the maximum height of building shall not exceed 1.5 times total the width of road abutting. In case of a congested area, maximum height of building is dependent on road width.

    Source: ‘Development Control Regulations (2000) for Nagpur City’ link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Patna

    Maximum Height Restriction: The maximum height of a building shall in no case exceed (1.5 times x the width of the road on which the plot abuts) + the front setback.

    Notes: The height of building is governed by limitations of FAR, setbacks and width of street facing the plot. Higher height on account of premium FAR may be permitted by the authority with the prior approval of the government.

    Source: ‘Bihar Building By-laws, 2014’, Urban Development and Housing Department, Government of Bihar,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Pune

    Maximum Height Restriction (m): No restriction to building height

    Source: ‘Development Control and Promotion Regulations’, Pune Municipal Corporation (DCPR 2017),
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Surat

    Maximum Height Restriction: 70m

    Notes: The maximum permissible building height is regulated according to width of road, with 70 m being the maximum building height.

    Source: ‘Gujarat Comprehensive Development Control Regulations 2017’,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Thane

    Maximum Height Restriction: No restriction to building height

    Notes: The building height is not capped by FSI regulations.

    Source: ‘The Indian Express (September 15, 2017)’,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Udaipur

    Maximum Height Restriction: 14m

    Source: ‘Udaipur Building By-laws 2013’, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Vadodara

    Maximum Height Restriction (m): The height of building shall not exceed twice the width of the abutting road plus the setback provided at ground level.

    Notes: For areas other than gamtal and the walled city area, maximum height of any building shall be 40m.

    Source: ‘Second Revised General Development Control Regulations 2006’, Vadodara Urban Development Authority,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

  • Land use regulations: Maximum height restrictions in global cities

    Note: This table depicts the maximum height permitted for residential construction by municipalities around the world.

    Amsterdam

    Maximum Height Restriction: No explicit limit to building height

    Notes: The height is depending on buildings in surrounding area and other criteria, such as the relationship between the height of the building and the distance from other buildings and open spaces on the same plot and the buildings on adjacent plots and their open areas, and from roads and paths, for example in order to provide satisfactory light conditions and to prevent unreasonable overlooking.

    Source: ‘Building Regulations - Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority 2010’, High-rise housing in the Netherlands, past, present and sustainability outlook, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Paris

    Maximum Height Restriction: 50m

    Notes: Residential buildings can reach 50 meters and commercial buildings can theoretically extend to 180 meters, or twice as high as the spire of the Notre-Dame Cathedral.

    Source: ‘Heyman, S. (2015). Paris Raises Its Silhouette, but Slowly and Not Easily. The New York Times.’ (Accessed on 22 May 2018).
    link

    Singapore

    Maximum Height Restriction: No explicit limit to building height

    Notes: Residential development will follow the GPR / Storey Height Typology for flats and condominium. For other land uses without stipulated building height controls, the permissible height will be subject to evaluation. All building heights are subject to technical height controls and detailed height controls may be applicable.

    Source: ‘Building Height Plan 2014’, Urban Redevelopment Authority Singapore,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Sydney

    Maximum Height Restriction: 80m

    Notes: Within two areas, a maximum building height is allowed of 235m.

    Source: ‘Central Sydney Planning Strategy 2016’, City of Sydney,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Tokyo

    Maximum Height Restriction: No explicit limit to building height

    Notes: FAR, shadow restrictions and slant plane restrictions limit building height.

    Source: ‘Legal Constraints to City form of Tokyo’, Urban Land Use Planning System Japan,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Washington D.C.

    Maximum Height Restriction: 27.4m

    Notes: Residential areas: height is limited to 90 feet (27.4m). Mixed use or commercial areas: buildings may be as high as the width of the street plus 20 feet, but may not exceed 130 feet.

    Source: ‘National Capital Planning Commission. Height of Buildings Act, 1910.’ (Accessed on 22 May 2018).
    link
    ‘National Capital Planning Commission. Part I: Historical Background on the Height of Buildings Act, 1910.’ (Accessed on 22 May 2018).
    link

  • Costs: State-wise stamp duties and registration fees

    Stamp Duty

    Registration fees

    Sources

    Assam

    Sale to Women- 5%
    Sale to Others- 6%

    Upto Rs. 500 - Rs. 10
    Above Rs. 500 Upto Rs. 1000 - Rs. 15
    Above Rs. 1000 Upto Rs. 10000 - 2%
    Above Rs. 10000 Upto Rs. 20000 - 2.5%
    Above Rs. 20000 Upto Rs. 30000 - 3%
    Above Rs. 30000 Upto Rs. 50000 - 3.5%
    Above Rs. 50000 Upto Rs. 75000 - 4%
    Above Rs. 75000 Upto Rs. 90000 - 4.5%
    Above Rs. 90000 Upto Rs. 150000 - 5.5%
    Above Rs. 150000 Upto Rs. 300000 - 6.5%
    Above Rs. 300000 Upto Rs. 500000 - 7.5%
    Above Rs. 500000 - 8.5%

    Stamp Duty Fees’, Revenue Department, Government of Assam, link
    (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    ‘Registration fees’, Revenue Department, Government of Assam, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Punjab

    Urban - 9%
    Rural - 7%

    1%

    ‘Stamp Duty Frame’, Revenue Department, Government of Punjab, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Kerala

    8%

    2%

    ‘Stamp Duty and Fees’, Registration Department, Government of Kerela, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Uttar Pradesh

    Men - 7%

    Women -

    Upto 10 lakh: 6%

    Above 10 lakh: 7%

    2%

    Sunder, G.S (2016). Property Registration, Land Records And Building Approval Procedures Followed in Various States in India (2nd ed.). Chennai, India: Shri Vidya Devi Publishers.

    ‘Registration Fee Table’, Stamp and Registration Department, Government of Uttar Pradesh, 8th December 2015, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Chhattisgarh

    7.5%

    1%

    ‘Stamp Duty Fees’, Registration and Stamp Department, Government of Chhattisgarh,
    link

    ‘Registration Fees’, Registration and Stamp Department, Government of Chhattisgarh, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Himachal Pradesh

    Men - 6%

    Women - 4%

    2%

    ‘The Indian Stamp (Himachal Pradesh Amendment) Bill (2013)’, Revenue Department, Government of Himachal Pradesh, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    ‘Stamp-Registration Fees’, Revenue Department, Government of Himachal Pradesh, 12th Jan 2012, link
    (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Bihar

    6%

    2%

    ‘Change in Stamp Duty’, Bihar Chambers of Commerce and Industries, Government of Bihar, 29 July 2015, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    ‘Change in Registration Fees’, Bihar Chambers of Commerce and Industries, Government of Bihar, 29 July 2015, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    West Bengal

    Urban -

    Property Value
    > 40 lakhs: 7%

    Property Value
    upto 40 lakhs: 6%

    Rural - 5%

    1%

    ‘Stamp Duties and Fees’, Finance (Revenue) Department, Government of West Bengal,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    ‘Notification of Fees’, Finance (Revenue) Department, Government of West Bengal, 6th March 2017, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Tamil Nadu

    7%

    1%

    ‘Tamil Nadu Stamp Manual’, Revenue Department, Government of Tamil Nadu, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Haryana

    Urban -
    Men: 8%; Women: 6%

    Rural -
    Men: 6%; Women: 4%

    Minimum
    Rs. 50
    Maximum
    Rs. 15000

    ‘Indian Stamp Act (Haryana)’, Department of Revenue, Government of Haryana, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Uttarakhand

    Men - 5%

    Women - 3.75%

    2%

    ‘Stamp and Registration Fees’, Department of Stamps and Registration, Government of Uttarakhand, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Jharkhand

    4%

    3%

    ‘Stamp Registration Fees List’, Registration Department, Government of Jharkhand,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Odisha

    Men - 5%

    Women - 4%

    2%

    ‘Odisha Stamp Act’, Inspector General of Registration Revenue and Disaster Management Department, Government of Odisha, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    New Delhi

    Men - 6%

    Women - 4%

    1%

    ‘Property Registration’, Department of Revenue, Government of NCT of Delhi, 22 March 2014, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    ‘Registration Fees’, Department of Revenue, Government of NCT of Delhi, July 2010, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Karnataka

    5.60%

    1%

    ‘At a Glance: Duties and Fees’, Stamp and Registration Department, Government of Karnataka, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Rajasthan

    Men -
    Regular: 5%

    Disabled: 4%

    Women -
    ST/SC/OBC: 3%

    Other Women: 4%

    1%

    ‘Stamp Duty and Registration Fee Details’, Registration and Stamps Department, Government of Rajasthan, 5 March 2017, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Maharashtra

    Urban (Municipal Corporations) - 5%

    Urban
    (Municipal Councils) - 4%

    Rural - 3%

    1%

    ‘Maharastra Stamp Act: Schedule 1A’, Stamp and Registration Department, Government of Maharastra, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    ‘Table of Fees’, Stamp and Registration Department, Government of Maharashtra,
    link
    (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Gujarat

    4.90%

    1%

    Sunder, G.S (2016). Property Registration, Land Records And Building Approval Procedures Followed in Various States in India (2nd ed.). Chennai, India: Shri Vidya Devi Publishers

    Madhya Pradesh

    5%

    0.80%

    ‘Indian Stamp (MP Amendment) 2015, January 2015, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    ‘Registration Fees’, Department of Registration and Stamps, Government of Madhya Pradesh,
    15th August 2014,
    link
    (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Telangana

    4% upto Rs. 1000 and 20% for every Rs. 500 in excess of Rs. 1000

    0.50%

    ‘Telangana Stamp Act: Schedule 1A’, Registration and Stamps Department, Government of Telengana, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    ‘Registration Fees’, Registration and Stamps Department, Government of Telangana,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Andhra Pradesh

    4%

    0.50%

    Reduction of Stamp Duty’, Revenue Department, Government of Andra Pradesh, 30th November 2013, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    ‘Simplification of Fee Structure’, Revenue Department, Government of Andra Pradesh, 17th August 2013, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Arunachal Pradesh

    Above Rs. 1000 upto
    Rs. 10,000- 3%

    Above Rs. 10,000 upto
    Rs. 1,00,000- 2%

    Above Rs. 1,00,000 upto
    Rs. 3,00,000- 1%

    Above Rs. 3,00,000 upto
    Rs. 5,00,000- 2%

    Rs. 5,00,000 and above- 3%

    Upto Rs. 1000- Rs. 50

    Rs. 1,001 to Rs. 10,000- Rs. 50 + 1.5%

    Rs. 10,001 to Rs. 1,00,000- 1%

    Rs. 1,00,000 to Rs. 3,00,000- 0.75%

    Rs. 3,00,000 to Rs. 5,00,000- 1%

    Rs. 5,00,000 and above- 1.5%

    ‘The Indian Stamp (Arunachal Amendment) Act, 2007’, Government of Arunachal Pradesh,
    link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    ‘Arunachal Pradesh Registration (Amendment) Rules, 2007’, Government of Arunachal Pradesh, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Goa

    Rs. 600 –
    Rs. 50,00,000 - 3%

    Rs. 50,00,000 – Rs. 75,00,000 - 3.5%

    Rs. 75,00,000 - Rs. 1,00,00,000 - 4%

    Above
    Rs. 1,00,00,000 - 4.5%

    Amount not exceeding Rs. 50 lakhs - 2%

    Above Rs. 50 lakhs upto Rs. 75 lakhs - 3%

    Above Rs. 75 lakhs upto Rs. 100 lakhs - 3.5%

    Above Rs. 100 lakhs - 4%

    ‘Stamp Duty Rates’, Department of Revenue, Government of Goa, link
    (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    ‘Registration Rates’, Department of Revenue, Government of Goa, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Nagaland

    Above Rs. 150000 - 8.25%

    0.50%

    ‘Indian Stamp Act (Nagaland)’, Government of Nagaland, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)

    Sikkim

    1%

    4%

    ‘Stamp Duty Rates’, Documents, Volume III, Government of Sikkim, link (Accessed on 19 February 2018)